Every Mission to Mercury, Ever

Only 2 spacecraft have ever visited Mercury, and a third is on the way. It actually takes more energy for a spacecraft to reach Mercury than Pluto. Mercury is the fastest-orbiting planet in our solar system—it blazes around the Sun at 48 kilometers per second. Missions trying to enter orbit there typically fly past Earth, Venus, and/or Mercury itself, using gravitational nudges to adjust their trajectories.

Mercury, planet of extremes

Mercury can teach us how planets form and what the early solar system was like when life arose on Earth.

BepiColombo, studying how Mercury formed

Europe and Japan’s first Mercury mission will study how the planet formed.


Launch: 3 August 2004
Flyby 1
: 14 January 2008
Flyby 2
: 6 October 6 2008
Flyby 3
: 29 September 2009
: 17 March 2011

NASA's MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) was the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury. MESSENGER discovered Mercury’s core makes up 85 percent of the planet’s volume—much more than Earth’s, which makes up just 15 percent.

Mariner 10

Launch: 3 November 1973
Flyby 1: 29 March 1974
Flyby 2
: 21 September 1974
Flyby 3
: 16 March 1975

In the 1970s, NASA’s Mariner 10 made 3 flybys of Mercury, seeing the same side each time and revealing its crater-ridden surface and magnetic field.