Compare the Planets
Comparing the physical characteristics of the worlds in our solar system (and beyond)
The worlds of our solar system come in all shapes, sizes, and colors. Red-eyed Jupiter, ringed Saturn, and frigid Uranus and Neptune are giant gassy globes containing nearly all of the matter in the solar system. These Jovian planets, or gas giants, are huge worlds of air, clouds, and fluid that may have no solid surfaces no matter how deep you go. Everything else in the solar system is just rock, ice, and dust. The largest rockballs are known as the terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, with our Moon usually considered part of the club, and now Vesta is applying for membership. Earth is the biggest of all the rocky worlds.
But the planets are not the only worlds of the solar system. All but two of the planets are orbited by moons, each of them a world unto itself. The largest moons are bigger than the smallest planets, and 16 or 17 would qualify as dwarf planets if they orbited the Sun. There are more than 100 Kuiper belt dwarf planets, but only one among the asteroids, Ceres.
Six solid worlds -- Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan, Triton, and Pluto -- have atmospheres dense enough to produce weather. Eris likely does, when it is near its perihelion. We have witnessed active geology on four worlds -- Earth, Io, Enceladus, and Triton -- and we suspect it on Venus, Europa, and Titan. Comparing the same processes across many worlds helps us to understand how each planet's unique composition and history influence its present state, and will help us predict what to expect on Earth in the future.
Pretty Pictures with Many Worlds
This chart is an attempt to use New Horizons LORRI images of Jupiter's moons to demonstrate how many pixels across LORRI images of Pluto will be at various dates during New Horizons' approach in 2015. The text indicates the dates and distances of the Galilean moon photos, and indicates at what date and distance LORRI will have comparable resolution on Pluto (scaling for the size of Pluto, which is smaller than Io or Ganymede). The first column of images is archival LORRI data. The second column is the same images, enlarged by a factor of 3 to make the individual pixels visible. In the third column, the images have been enlarged with interpolation.
The Chang'e 5 test vehicle service module took this photo of Earth and the Moon together on November 9, a week after successfully returning the sample capsule. The Moon's surface is quite dark compared to Earth's bright clouds.
Comet Siding Spring (just above center) and Mars (brilliant object to lower left) seen on October 20, 2014 at 09:47 UT, hours after the comet's closest approach. Image acquired from iTelescope Siding Spring, Australia. The bright star at upper right is 51 Ophiuchi.
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