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Compare the Planets

Comparing the physical characteristics of the worlds in our solar system (and beyond)

The worlds of our solar system come in all shapes, sizes, and colors. Red-eyed Jupiter, ringed Saturn, and frigid Uranus and Neptune are giant gassy globes containing nearly all of the matter in the solar system. These Jovian planets, or gas giants, are huge worlds of air, clouds, and fluid that may have no solid surfaces no matter how deep you go. Everything else in the solar system is just rock, ice, and dust. The largest rockballs are known as the terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, with our Moon usually considered part of the club, and now Vesta is applying for membership. Earth is the biggest of all the rocky worlds.

But the planets are not the only worlds of the solar system. All but two of the planets are orbited by moons, each of them a world unto itself. The largest moons are bigger than the smallest planets, and 16 or 17 would qualify as dwarf planets if they orbited the Sun. There are more than 100 Kuiper belt dwarf planets, but only one among the asteroids, Ceres.

Six solid worlds -- Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan, Triton, and Pluto -- have atmospheres dense enough to produce weather. Eris likely does, when it is near its perihelion. We have witnessed active geology on four worlds -- Earth, Io, Enceladus, and Triton -- and we suspect it on Venus, Europa, and Titan. Comparing the same processes across many worlds helps us to understand how each planet's unique composition and history influence its present state, and will help us predict what to expect on Earth in the future.

Pretty Pictures with Many Worlds

Jupiter and Ganymede from Hubble

Jupiter and Ganymede from Hubble

On April 9, 2007, Hubble caught Ganymede in the act of setting behind Jupiter. Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system, bigger than the planet Mercury.

Filed under Jupiter's moons, Hubble Space Telescope, pretty pictures, Ganymede, many worlds, Jupiter

Enceladus, Titan, and the rings of Saturn

Enceladus, Titan, and the rings of Saturn

This incredible composition was captured by Cassini during its May 18, 2010 flyby of Enceladus. In the foreground, near the top, is the night side of Enceladus' south pole, only about 14,000 kilometers away from the spacecraft. In the middle ground are Saturn's rings seen nearly edge on; with the Sun nearly in front of Cassini, the wispy F ring makes the brightest, fuzzy-edged streak. In the background, peeking through the gaps in the rings, is Titan, with its twilit atmosphere nearly encircling the visible disk.

Filed under Enceladus, pretty pictures, Cassini, Titan, amateur image processing, Saturn's moons, many worlds, Saturn, Saturn's rings

Scale comparison of Vesta and Ceres

Scale comparison of Vesta and Ceres

Scale comparison of, from top to bottom: Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Ceres, and Vesta.

Filed under asteroid 4 Vesta, pretty pictures, scale comparisons, Mercury, asteroids, the Moon, global views, Mars, asteroid 1 Ceres

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Section Highlights

Planetary Facts

Mass, diameter, density, gravity, orbital characteristics, presented both in metric units and measured relative to Earth.

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Asteroids and Comets Visited by Spacecraft

A comparison of all the asteroids and comets ever visited by spacecraft, up to date as of November 10 (when Deep Impact flew past Hartley 2). Vesta is not included.

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Every Round Object in the Solar System, to Scale

A correctly scaled, reasonably correctly colored view of the largest bodies in the solar system.

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