MOLA map: NASA / JPL / GSFC. Map by Emily Lakdawalla
Map of Mars with major regions labeled
The base map is a Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic map of Mars. The most obvious geomorphic feature of Mars is the dichotomy between its northern lowlands and southern highlands. There are three clearly visible impact basins: Argyre and Hellas in the south, and Isidis near the equator. The Northern Lowlands consists of the Vastitas Borealis, with three "bays" jutting south of that: Amazonis, Chryse, and Utopia Planitiae. The Tharsis Rise is a huge bulge on the equator associated with the three volcanoes of the Tharsis Montes. Three more volcanic provinces lie on Tharsis' northern edge: Olympus Mons, Alba Mons, and Tempe Terra. Elysium Mons is a lonely volcanic complex some distance away. In the southern highlands, Noachis Terra is some of the most ancient terrain on Mars, the source of the name of Mars' Noachian period. Volcanic deposits in Hesperia Planum gave their name to the middle, Hesperian period. Some of the youngest volcanic deposits on Mars are located in the Cerberus Plains, on the flanks of Elysium.