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Headshot of Emily Lakdawalla

2015 will be the Year of the Dwarf Planet, and you need to tell people about it!

Posted By Emily Lakdawalla

05-03-2014 19:00 CST

Topics: trans-neptunian objects, pretty pictures, Pluto, scale comparisons, Charon, asteroids, dwarf planets beyond Neptune, asteroid 1 Ceres

I am very excited about 2015, more so than I have been about any year since I started working at The Planetary Society. There have been many things to get excited about in previous years, but 2015 will be extra special because two missions will turn three dots in the sky into geographical worlds. I'm talking about Dawn, which will enter orbit at Ceres, and New Horizons, which will fly past Pluto and Charon.

New Horizons at Pluto and Charon

Ed Hengeveld / Philip Corneille

New Horizons at Pluto and Charon

In my professional career, I've seen lots of dots turn into lumpy worlds: Phoebe, Itokawa, Tempel 1, and Lutetia, to name a few. They're all exciting, and quite surprisingly diverse, but their surfaces largely record external influences: they're battered by craters and reddened by space weathering and mostly bear witness to harms they experienced from outside. As a geologist, I'm attracted to places where internal fires fueled geologic activity, whose surfaces record a story written from the inside. And the last time we saw one of those kinds of places for the first time ever was in 1989, when Voyager 2 found Triton to be utterly different from any moon we'd seen before.

A good signpost suggesting which worlds have likely experienced internal geology and which ones haven't is whether the world is round. If a world is round, that means it's massive enough for the force imposed by its self-gravity to overcome the strength of its component materials, reshaping it. How big you have to be to get round depends upon your internal composition; it seems to be above 600 kilometers (at least) for rocky worlds, but only 400 kilometers for icy ones. Pluto (2330 km), Ceres (990 km), and Charon (1207 km) are all big enough to be round. As of this time next year, we'll be getting our very first views of three round worlds, turning them into places with geography and geology for us to explore.

Dawn thrusting toward Ceres

NASA / JPL-Caltech

Dawn thrusting toward Ceres
Artist's rendition of Dawn thrusting with its ion propulsion system as it approaches Ceres in 2015.

I know that many of you reading this blog probably feel as excited about Pluto, Charon, and Ceres as I do. And there's no doubt that Pluto remains a popular topic among adults. But, as a parent of a child born three weeks before Pluto's "demotion", I've seen how its nomenclature change has resulted in its astonishingly rapid redaction from educational products. School teachers -- who don't receive much science training, at least in the U.S. -- mostly don't seem to understand what Pluto is now thought to be; I've had several teachers ask me if Pluto is now considered some kind of star. Beyond Pluto, most teachers, kids, and parents definitely don't know what Charon and Ceres are, if they've heard of them at all.

This lack of understanding is a serious problem for those of us who are fans of NASA's planetary exploration program, because it's very hard to talk people into funding a space program whose destinations seem to be places nobody ever heard of. Ceres, Pluto, Charon; and I'll add Europa, Ganymede, Titan, Enceladus, and Triton: how important can they be, if they're not on that list of eight planets? You want how much money? To fly a spacecraft to where, exactly? Enchiladas?

And it doesn't look like NASA is planning to help much with this perception problem. In a slide extolling "Anticipated Accomplishments in Fiscal Year 2015" included in their presentation of the 2015 budget yesterday, they mentioned such exciting things as "Asteroid Redirect Mission: Hold Concept Review" but not the anticipated accomplishments of flying by Pluto for the first time, or entering orbit around the largest asteroid and only dwarf planet in the asteroid belt, together getting our first views of two worlds that will be totally different from anything we've ever explored before.

We could wring our hands about all of this and say "Oh, public education is so terrible, people are idiots, NASA neglects planetary science, blah blah blah," but that's not constructive and it's not my style. I'm totally with Randall Munroe on this:

Instead, I'm calling on you, dear readers, to start spreading the word about how awesome 2015 is going to be. How we're boldly going where no one has gone before. That in February or March of 2015, three tiny dots will start growing into disks on the main viewer of two of our ships -- except it's better than that; it's not just a privileged ship's crew that will be seeing these dots grow into worlds, it's all of us, everyone on Earth, because they'll be sharing their photos on the Internet, where everyone can see them, and wonder at them, and share them, and talk about them with each other.

We've completed the initial reconnaissance of the planets; we've seen them all for the first time, and followed up by sending orbital missions to most of them (with the notable exceptions of Neptune and Uranus, because they're so distant). We've moved into a new phase of planetary exploration, where we focus in on those worlds whose stories are most compelling to us. While some of those worlds considered most worthy of further followup are planets, many of them are not. They are large moons, like Europa, Ganymede, Titan, Enceladus, and Triton; or they're dwarf planets, like Pluto and Ceres.

I thought I'd make a few graphics to help people tell this story. Here are all the round worlds in the solar system that we've visited with spacecraft that are smaller than 10,000 kilometers in diameter. "Round" is, of course, relative; there's a couple of worlds at the bottom end of the graphic that are maybe a little lumpy. I'm never quite sure what to do with Proteus. And Vesta is really not round, but it's bigger than some of the definitely-round moons and may have had some internal geologic activity, so I left it on the list. It's a cool borderline case, anyway. And then there's Mars and Mercury: I love including planets on graphics like these. When you include the planets it's striking and surprising how big and varied the solar system's large moons are; they're quite planet-like, and you'll often hear planetary scientists slip up and call them "planets" when they're discussing geology of the planet-sized moons. (Some call them "planets" intentionally.) If you're wondering about the uneven spacing of the worlds, just wait.

Round worlds under 10,000 kilometers in diameter that have been visited by spacecraft, to scale

Montage by Emily Lakdawalla. Data from NASA / JPL and SSI, processed by Gordan Ugarkovic, Ted Stryk, Bjorn Jonsson, and Emily Lakdawalla.

Round worlds under 10,000 kilometers in diameter that have been visited by spacecraft, to scale
This diagram is also available without text.

OK, now I'm adding in half-circles scaled to the sizes of the biggest asteroids we haven't visited: Ceres, Pallas, and Hygeia; as well as Pluto and Charon. Pluto is in an interesting position in the lineup -- smaller than the planet-sized moons, larger than the mid-sized iceball moons. Will Pluto look more planet-ish or more moon-ish? We won't know until next year! Charon, on the other hand, sits comfortably among the lineup of iceball moons, and I'm guessing it'll resemble its cousins at Saturn and Uranus, but again: who knows? Ceres is probably big enough to be pretty much round; we've gotten a good enough look from Hubble to know that it's pretty round. Pallas and Hygeia probably aren't round, like Vesta. The next biggest asteroids (Interamnia, Europa, Davida, and Sylvia) are substantially smaller than anything else on this graphic. The biggest Centaurs and Trojans are even smaller than that.

Round worlds under 10,000 kilometers in diameter visited by spacecraft, plus biggest asteroids and Pluto, to scale

Montage by Emily Lakdawalla. Data from NASA / JPL and SSI, processed by Gordan Ugarkovic, Ted Stryk, Bjorn Jonsson, and Emily Lakdawalla.

Round worlds under 10,000 kilometers in diameter visited by spacecraft, plus biggest asteroids and Pluto, to scale
This diagram is also available without text.

But the lineup above doesn't tell the full story. The reason Pluto was demoted was because we discovered other worlds out there that form a whole population of bodies, analagous to the asteroid belt, that occupy the same region of space. But we never talk about these other worlds. That's natural, because we don't know a lot about them; but the focus on Pluto tends to make us dismiss the rest as another belt of lumpy cratered rocks.

The Kuiper belt isn't like that at all. Unlike the asteroid belt -- which may contain only one round object -- the space beyond Neptune is absolutely full of large round worlds; Pluto is only the beginning. There's one other world as big as Pluto -- Eris -- and probably another eight that fit in with Charon in the company of the definitely-round, mid-sized, 1000-kilometer-ish iceballs. A further 70 or so objects fill in the size distribution from the Tethys-sized Salacia to the Proteus-sized 1999 TC36. Of course, they're so far away that we often have trouble being sure just how big they are, and size estimates will change over time; but the population of bodies is large enough that the numbers should hold up pretty well, even as estimates for the sizes of individual objects shift up and down. (The sizes I display on this diagram came from Mike Brown's website.)

Every round object in the solar system under 10,000 kilometers in diameter, to scale [DEPRECATED]

Montage by Emily Lakdawalla. Data from NASA / JPL and SSI, processed by Gordan Ugarkovic, Ted Stryk, Bjorn Jonsson, and Emily Lakdawalla.

Every round object in the solar system under 10,000 kilometers in diameter, to scale [DEPRECATED]
Under a size cutoff of 10,000 kilometers, there are two planets, 18 or 19 moons, a few asteroids (perhaps only one of which is actually "round"), and approximately 80 trans-Neptunian objects, most of which do not yet have names. All are shown to scale, keeping in mind that for most of the trans-Neptunian objects, their sizes are only approximately known.

Just look at all of these worlds, and think about how much of the solar system we have yet to explore. Think about how much we have to learn by orbiting, and maybe even landing on, those planet-sized moons. Think about how Pluto isn't the end of the planets, it's the start of a whole new part of the solar system that we've never seen before, and how seeing Charon is going to clue us in to what's happening on a dozen other similar-sized, unvisitably far worlds.

That's why 2015 is going to be so exciting. This is probably just the first of many posts on how to excite and educate people about 2015. Now, space fans, go out and tell people about the places that aren't planets that we have yet to explore.

See other posts from March 2014


Read more blog entries about: trans-neptunian objects, pretty pictures, Pluto, scale comparisons, Charon, asteroids, dwarf planets beyond Neptune, asteroid 1 Ceres


Dean: 03/06/2014 12:36 CST

"Here are all the round worlds in the solar system that we've visited with spacecraft that are smaller than 10,000 kilometers in diameter." NASA building 'em big - DeathStar:Yield!

Jonathan Ursin: 03/06/2014 10:18 CST

I'd like to visit the planet Enchiladas!

Mark Zambelli: 03/06/2014 11:08 CST

Bravo Emily! Can't wait to see Ceres up close and personal and when the Pluto-Charon images start coming down it'll be wonderful. My daughter was eight weeks old when Pluto was (rightfully) reclassified and her older brother was three yrs old; I've had to steer both of their teachers in the right direction recently with respect to some solar-system homework. Fortunately the teachers were open to learn the correct view, one with particular enthusiasm, so if we all stick with this type of education-outreach we'll get there in the end. Keep up the excellent posts... there will be many of us eagerly anticipating any news you can pass along.

Kim Craig: 03/06/2014 02:44 CST

Thanks Emily, great post! You never disappoint. New Horizons arrives at Pluto 50 years and a day after Mariner 4 flew past Mars. What a way to celebrate that great milestone with another great milestone in a year of dwarf planet milestones!

Mike: 03/06/2014 03:36 CST

What type of instrument package would you recommend for a probe to planet Enchiladas?

Mike: 03/06/2014 03:56 CST

I think all of that cheese just crashed Google drive... try this:

Shreerang Kaulgi: 03/09/2014 12:58 CDT

Is there any news for the asteroid that passed between the Moon and the Earth on 08 March 2014? It was expected topass the Earth on 08 March 2014 at about 0930 UT.

Richard Bruns: 03/10/2014 04:24 CDT

Solid argument and discussion. Also, congrats on your participation (an animation) at the recent SWAP convention in Tucson. The panel discussion was very informative. Thanks!

Laurel Kornfeld: 03/10/2014 10:47 CDT

Yes, we do need to tell people about these fascinating new worlds, and NASA's Dawn and New Horizons missions are actually doing a great job publicizing their first sight as worlds instead of tiny dots. Unfortunately, you present one view of Pluto and dwarf planets as the only truth when this is not the case. Many astronomers, starting with New Horizons' own Principal Investigator, DO view dwarf planets as a subclass of planets. It is disappointing to see such blind acceptance of a controversial decree by four percent of the IAU, a decision many astronomers continue to reject and view as anything but "rightful." I have steered teachers in the direction of teaching this as an open debate, not as a settled matter. According to the equally legitimate geophysical planet definition, all these round worlds are planets--including Europa, Triton, Enceladus, Ganymede, etc. Our solar system has way more than 8 planets, and this too needs to be told. As New Horizons Principal Investigator Dr. Alan Stern says, "And I can’t think of a single distinguishing characteristic that would set apart Pluto and other things that you’d call a planet, other than its size. So I like to say, a Chihuahua is still a dog." This multiplicity of views of the solar system is what makes this such an exciting time for astronomy.

Mike Wrathell: 03/10/2014 11:50 CDT

What 2015 will be will be ultimately judged by posterity. 2015 could very well be the Year of Replanetization for Ceres and Pluto. Planetary Scientist Dr. Alan Stern's argument for dwarf planets being a third class of planet is a sound one. Time will tell. The IAU General Assembly in August 2015 could very well have a new, improved resolution that includes dwarf planets as planets. The problems associated with the 2006 resolution that demoted Pluto is well-documented and as long as that resolution remains in effect, it is a black eye for all Science.

Tony: 10/01/2014 09:40 CDT

I appear to have been censored.

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