Pluto Campaign Timeline
- Early indications that Pluto mission, “Pluto Express,” may be cancelled.
- The Planetary Society begins grassroots public campaign.
- NASA cancels “Pluto Express.”
- The Planetary Society continues its campaign.
- The Planetary Society presents 10,000 postcards supporting the Pluto mission to congress. Half the postcards were addressed to Representative Dana Rohrabacher, Chair of the House Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee, and half to Senator Bill Frist, Chair of the Senate Science, Technology & Space Subcommittee, in Washington DC. They were delivered directly to them by Louis Friedman, Executive Director of The Planetary Society, and Bill Nye, “The Science Guy.”
- Representatives James Walsh (R-NY), and Alan Mollahan (D-WV), the chair and ranking minority member, respectively, of the Committee on Appropriations in the US House of Representatives, sent a letter to NASA Administrator Dan Goldin asking for "a definitive explanation of NASA's plans for the Pluto-Kuiper Express mission....".
- The Solar System Exploration Subcommittee (SSES) writes to NASA in support of a mission to Pluto.
- NASA considers recommendations of SSES.
- NASA calls for new mission proposals, reviving the Pluto mission.
- Panelists Neil Tyson, Wes Huntress, Bill Nye, Alan Stern and Louis Friedman forcefully argue the case for a mission to Pluto at a public event in Washington.
- NASA cancels the Pluto mission bidding process, directing more funds to the Mars Exploration Program. The proposed budget enters the Congressional approval process.
- Congress orders NASA to continue accepting proposals for the Pluto mission until it can review the Administration’s budget proposal for NASA.
- The Administration budget proposal contains no funding for a mission to Pluto – effectively canceling the project. The Planetary Society asks congress to schedule hearings to consider the question, value and public interest of adding a small amount to the NASA budget to enable the Pluto mission to proceed on schedule.
- NASA selects two mission proposals despite the funding uncertainties. Work will continue on the proposals in cooperation with the NASA Office of Space Science for the next three months, when the final selection will be made.
- Bruce Murray, President of The Planetary Society, strongly urges the Congress to support the language and funding in the FY 02 VA-HUD-IA Appropriations bill for the Pluto mission.
- The House adds $25 million for Pluto mission to the Administration’s budget proposal.
- The Senate approves $30 million funding that “should be used to initiate appropriate spacecraft and science instrument development as well as launch vehicle procurement" for the Pluto mission.
- NASA picks the New Horizons proposal. The New Horizons team is led by Principal Investigator S. Alan Stern, director of the Department of Space Studies at the Southwest Research Institute, and also includes major partners at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory; Stanford University; Ball Aerospace; NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center; and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to move forward, New Horizons must now pass a NASA confirmation review that will address the risks involved and the regulatory approval required for the spacecraft's nuclear power-source.
- Bush Administration decides to postpone the entire outer planets program indefinitely, including New Horizons. It says that NASA will begin two new initiatives - a line of mid-sized missions called New Frontiers, as well as nuclear propulsion development for future outer planets missions.
- A statement by The Planetary Society is released and forwarded to the House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations and the U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee among other bodies strongly urging the decision be overturned. Scientific American, Astronomy, Nature, Mercury and other publications all come out in strong support for including the Pluto mission in the 2003 budget.
- A National Academy of Science report conducted by the National Research Council endorses the New Horizons mission as a top priority of planetary exploration for this decade. The Planetary Society calls on Congress to restore funding for “New Horizons” in light of the endorsement.
- Wesley T. Huntress, President of The Planetary Society, writes on behalf of the Society to members of the U.S. Senate’s Appropriations Committee, scheduled to act on the NASA budget, urging them to restore funding to the mission.
- The U.S. Senate’s Appropriations Committee adds space science funds to the NASA budget. The action is praised by Society Executive Director Louis Friedman, who also warns that the action still must be passed by the House Appropriations Committee and the full Senate.
- The House Appropriations Committee recommends increasing NASA’s budget to accommodate the New Horizons mission.
- The Planetary Society presents Congress with a petition signed by 10,000 people urging support for New Horizons.
- President Bush approves an omnibus spending bill of $110 million for New Horizons as part of NASA’s budget in fiscal year 2003 with an additional $130 million (yet to be approved) for 2004.
- The House Appropriations Committee earmarks $55 million in cuts from the New Frontiers program of which New Horizons is part. This would delay the launch by at least a year. The Planetary Society urges its members to write to Congressional leaders on the U.S. Senate’s Appropriations Committee, which must approve the cuts.
- The U.S. Senate’s Appropriations Committee approves full funding of New Horizons in the NASA budget for fiscal year 2004.
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