Join Donate

Emily LakdawallaDecember 10, 2012

Blast from the past: Mariner 4's images of Mars

I was searching around for some images to use for a public talk and stumbled across some work that had been posted at unmannedspaceflight.com several years ago: a couple of different amateur takes on the Mariner 4 image catalog, the first set of photos returned from Mars, dating to July 14, 1965. These were long before my time and as such I find myself totally unable to imagine myself having no knowledge of what Mars looked like up close, and then seeing these photos. What would I have made of them? Would I have been disappointed that they looked cratered like the Moon? Would I have understood what I was seeing at all?

Before I show the photos, here's a context map. Yes, the base map actually has canals drawn on it. It's a 1962 Air Force map drawn specifically for Mariner 4 mission planning (learn more about that here).

Location map for the Mariner 4 Mars images

NASA

Location map for the Mariner 4 Mars images
A base map shows the locations of all of Mariner 4's images of Mars, shot on July 14-15, 1965. Your eyes are not deceiving you: the base map on which the footprints are drawn has canals on it. This was, indeed, the map used by NASA to plan the encounter.

Here's one take on the complete catalog, assembled by Ted Stryk. He's worked his usual magic to bring out more coherent detail than would have been visible in processed images of the time.

The Mariner 4 image catalog

NASA / JPL / Ted Stryk

The Mariner 4 image catalog
A little commemorative compilation of the Mariner 4 images, along with the nearest decent context image of the correct hemisphere in the International Mars Patrol collection in the lower right hand corner.

Piotr Masek asked what really was visible in the images, and produced comparisons of most of the Mariner 4 photos to later Viking ones. Click on the photo to see ten more Mariner/Viking comparisons. Would we have come to different conclusions then, if we'd only been able to see slightly more clearly?

Mariner 4 images with Viking Orbiter comparisons

NASA / JPL / Piotr Masek

Mariner 4 images with Viking Orbiter comparisons
Mariner 4 didn't only see cratered terrain, but the images lacked the clarity needed to see Mars' more Earth-like features. This is Mariner 4 image #3. Click through to see many more such comparisons.

Read more: pretty pictures, history, amateur image processing, NASA Mars missions before 1996, global views, Mars

You are here:
Headshot of Emily Lakdawalla (2017, alternate)
Emily Lakdawalla

Senior Editor and Planetary Evangelist for The Planetary Society
Read more articles by Emily Lakdawalla

Comments & Sharing
MER
Let's Change the World

Become a member of The Planetary Society and together we will create the future of space exploration.

Join Today

LightSail
LightSail

LightSail 2 will launch aboard the SpaceX Falcon Heavy. Be part of this epic point in space exploration history!

Donate