The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) maintains real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities critical to the accuracy and lead time of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s space weather alerts and forecasts.
Launch: June 15, 2010 Orbit: LEO, polar, sun-synchronous 98 degrees, 700 km altitude
PICARD takes simultaneous measurements of the Sun's irradiance, solar flares, magnetic fields and diameter/shape, studying the link between solar cycles and temperature changes on earth. It is a sponsored by CNES, the French space agency.
Launch: 7 February 2008 Orbit: LEO 51.6 degrees, 400 kilometers
SOLAR is mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station. It measures the irradiance received from the sun, contributing to solar and stellar physics research, as well as improving atmospheric modeling, atmospheric chemistry and climatology models.
Launch: August 5, 1997 Orbit: Near L1 Lagrange point
ACE observes energetic solar, interplanetary, interstellar, and galactic particles. Near real-time data from the spacecraft are used by the Space Prediction Weather Center to provide one-hour warnings of approaching geomagnetic storms.
Launch: November 1, 1994 Orbit: Near L1 Lagrange point
GGS WIND measures solar wind and energetic particles emanating from the Sun. It is also creating baseline data for the upcoming Solar Probe+ and Solar Orbiter missions, and supplements data from the STEREO missions.
A group of six spacecraft that will study the sun during solar maximum, researching energetic particles, coronal mass ejections and interplanetary shocks in the inner heliosphere. Data will be used to forecast space weather for future human spaceflight missions.